Become a Validator

TON uses the Proof of Stake (PoS) consensus model. Consensus is maintained by validators - network participants who check the validity of blocks. Anyone can become a validator and earn Toncoin while contributing to network security.

How to become a Validator

Becoming a TON network validator requires access to high-performance hardware on a highly available network, as well as access to a large degree of Toncoin as a stake. Validators stake Toncoin for a fixed specific term, and the stake is refunded with interest after the completion of a validation round. Open-source software is available for those that wish to become validators.
Should a validator attempt to cheat or be unavailable during a validation round, its stake is partially or fully forfeited as a penalty.
Network validators verify user transactions. If all validators reach consensus that a transaction is valid, it is included in the blockchain. Invalid transactions are rejected. Therefore, validators have to correctly process user transactions at maximum speed to get rewarded and avoid penalties.

How validators achieve consensus

An ad hoc Byzantine Fault Tolerant Catchain protocol was developed to ensure that stakeholders achieve consensus as long as the number of cheaters among them is 1/3 or less.

Also, the protocol provides mathematical proofs of cheating attempts that is used as evidence for imposing penalties.

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Powerful server with fast internet
8 vCPUs, 64gb memory, 1TB SSD, Fixed IP address, 1gb/s
Obtaining Toncoin to stake
Currently, the average validator stake is 600k Toncoin

Software installation

The easiest way to get started is to use MyTonCtrl, an open-source tool for validators.
Ubuntu 18/20
Debian 10
wget sudo bash -m full
wget su root -c 'bash -m full'

Validators reward

Users send a small surplus amount of Toncoin to their transaction that represents a reward to validators for their work. This amount is distributed proportionally to the stake of validators elected in the given validation cycle.
~270 Toncoin / per day. Average income daily generated by validator node with average stake as of May 2022.
Additionally, new Toncoins are generated during validation. These also go to validators. Overall annual coin inflation is about 0.6%.
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If a Validator cheats

By design, any attempt to cheat in the Catchain Protocol is instantly detected. Upon the receipt of mathematical proof of cheating, other validators immediately stop interacting with a cheater node. Then validators hold an automated vote to fine the cheater, which consequently loses part - or all - of its stake.
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If a Validator underperforms or fails

Each validator tracks processing statistics of other validators. If the number of transactions processed per period is too small for a given node, validators collectively vote to fine it and the underperforming node loses part - or all - of its stake.
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TON Nominators

The TON Nominator service allows Toncoin holders to lend their asset to owners of validator nodes (validators). Toncoin earned by the validator is distributed to those that lent their assets to the validator.
The TON Nominator smart contract guarantees borrowed coins will be used solely for validation purposes, and that revenue gained will be distributed as per stated conditions.